Mussolini en chemise [Mussolini in a Nightshirt]. Paris: Editions Rieder, 1932.



Mussolini en chemise [Mussolini in a Nightshirt]. Paris: Editions Rieder, 1932.


This is the French translation of Mussolini in camicia, a 1927 publication in Italian in New York, q.v., that was known and admired enough to receive this French translation, and subsequently, translations into Dutch (Mussolini in zijn hemd, 1933), q.v., and into English in London (Mussolini Red and Black, 1935), q.v., based on this French translation rather than the Italian original. It then returned to New York to be published in the British translation (Mussolini Red and Black, 1938, published by the Freie Arbeiter Stimme), q.v. I have not found that the Fraye arbeṭer shṭime (the Free Labor Voice), the Yiddish language New York-based anarchist newspaper (with a publishing arm), published any other Italians.

This is purportedly number 4 of 20 copies that were not put in commerce (HC or "hors commerce"), printed on Alfa mousses des papeteries de Navarre, as indicated on the verso of the title page. I say "purportedly" because in November or December 2021, I saw a copy for sale of this French edition also claiming to be No. 4 of 20 copies hors commerce.

The collection now has copies of all editions of this important work: the Italian original, and English, French and Dutch translations. It could of course not be published in Italian in Italy until after the war, q.v. the 1947 and 1961 Italian editions.

Borghi escaped Italy in time to avoid being imprisoned or murdered as an enemy of the fascist government for his heretical views of Mussolini. Had he not been able to first publish this work as written, in Italian, in New York, it might never have appeared in Italian, probably a prerequisite to translation into three other languages, and thus contribute to an international disenchantment with Mussolini. 


Armando Borghi


Editions Rieder




18 x 12.5cm; 241 p.




Armando Borghi, “Mussolini en chemise [Mussolini in a Nightshirt]. Paris: Editions Rieder, 1932.,” Italian-Language American Imprints: The Periconi Collection, accessed January 29, 2023,

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